Determines the quality standards for the project and product
Creates the quality management plan, process improvement plan, and the quality metrics
Control Quality (QC)
Evaluates the products or outputs to ensure that they comply with the requirements
Creates the QC measurements, verified deliverables, and validated changes
Manage Quality (QA)
Translates the quality plan into executable quality activities.
Increases the probability of achieving quality objectives
A component of the Manage Quality process is conducting quality assurance
QA audits the results from QC (the QC measurements) against the quality metrics to identify areas for improvement
Considered the umbrella over continuous process improvement
Managing quality activities are considered a cost of conformance (money spent to avoid failures)
Deming – Organizations can increase quality and reduce costs by practicing continuous process improvement and by thinking of manufacturing as a system, not bits and pieces.
Juran – Applied the Pareto principle to quality issues (80% of the problems originate from 20% of the causes) and also developed “Juran’s Trilogy”: quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement.
Crosby – Created the principle of Doing it Right the First Time (DIRFT).
Shewhart – Developed the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Cycle.
Quality – The degree to which characteristics fulfill requirements.
Grade – A category assigned to products or services having the same functional use but different technical characteristics.
Precision – The values of repeated measurement are consistent.
Accuracy – The measured value is very close to the target value.
Attribute Sampling – The result conforms, or it does not.
Variable Sampling – The result is rated on a scale that measures the degree of conformity.
Special Causes of Variance – Unusual events, difficult to predict.
Common Causes of Variance – Normal process variation (aka random causes)
Tolerances – The result is acceptable if it falls within the range specified by the tolerance.
Control Limits – The process is in control if the result falls within the control limits.
Customer Satisfaction – Satisfaction is achieved through understanding, evaluating, defining, and managing expectations.
Continuous Improvement – The PDCA cycle is the basis for quality improvement; quality initiatives should improve the quality of the project’s management as well as the quality of the project’s product.
Prevention Over Inspection – Quality should be built into the products, not inspected in; prevention is proactive versus inspection which is reactive.
Mutually Beneficial Partnership with Suppliers – Managing the relationship with the focus on long-term relationships versus short term gains.
Management Responsibility – Quality requires the participation of all team members, but it is management’s responsibility to provide the appropriate tools required to deliver quality.
Ishikawa / Fishbone / Cause & Effect: The problem statement at the head of the fishbone is the starting point to trace the source of the problem back to its root cause.
Control Chart: Plots quality results in terms of control limits to determine stability; upper and lower specification limits reflect the maximum and minimum values allowed.
Flowchart: Maps a process, showing activities, decision points, etc, in order to help the team anticipate quality problems and where they may occur.
Histogram: Bar chart that shows a distribution of variables, where the height of the bar represents the frequency of occurring.
Affinity Diagram: Organizes potential causes of defects into groups showing areas that should be prioritized
Scatter Diagram / Correlation Chart: Shows the pattern of relationship between two variables. Uses a regression line to explain or predict how the change in an independent variable will change a dependent variable.
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